Teck Whye Primary School started as Jalan Teck Whye Primary School in 1959. It was then located at 36 Jalan Teck Whye and served the largely farming community in Chua Chu Kang. In 1972, the school amalgamated with the neighbouring Bukit Panjang Malay School, when vernacular schools were phased out.
In 1996, the school relocated to the school building, which was once occupied by Bukit Panjang Government High students, at 30 Jalan Teck Whye. The School was then renamed Teck Whye Primary School.
The shift to the current building at 11 Teck Whye Walk took place in mid-December 2001. The school was officially opened on 28 Jun 2002, by Prof Low Seow Chay, then Member of Parliament for Chua Chu Kang.